Below the sunlit surface, there’s a realm known as the ocean's “twilight zone.” At 200 to 1000 meters below the surface, sunlight is barely a glimmer, yet flashes of bioluminescence give us a clue that these waters teem with life. Through a new initiative of the TED foundation, the Audacious Project, WHOI has received funding to explore this vast and unexplored region of our oceans. Ken, and others, will be working over the next few years to develop technologies and scientific methods to explore this difficult to reach area. Highlighted below are some news from Cafe Thorium. Please see the WHOI Ocean Twilight Zone webpage for more information about the project. See below for more information on how Café Thorium is contributing to this project.
Carbon & Climate Change
Café Thorium will be addressing how carbon behaves in the ocean. Understanding how Earth will respond to increasing carbon dioxide emissions is arguably the most significant scientific question of our era. Changes we are already witnessing, plus likely pressure from commercial fishing operations, will affect critical twilight zone processes that move carbon from the surface to deep waters where it is sequestered for hundreds or thousands of years. Our goal is to unravel controls over the flow of carbon through the twilight zone to improve predictions of how climate change will play out there in the future.
New Technologies: Minions
An explosion of new technologies is revolutionizing oceanography and providing unprecedented access to once inaccessible places such as the twilight zone. We plan to use and extend these technologies, including autonomous robots, remotely operated vehicles, autonomous floats and profilers, and the sensors they carry, to address key questions about twilight zone biomass and biodiversity, food web dynamics, animal life history and behavior, and carbon cycling and climate connections. We also aim to link these tools into an “underwater internet” that will help inform scientific exploration, public engagement, and policy decisions.
Ken Buesseler & Melissa Omand (U. Rhode Island) have been developping MINIONS. These are small, inexpensive devices that can be deployed by the dozens at sites throughout the ocean twilight zone to take pictures of falling carbon particles, what we refer to as marine snow. A MINION, short for MINiature IsOpycNal floats is a small, neutrally buoyant float. Each is carefully ballasted to sink to a specific depth in the ocean, where it will drift along with the currents, taking pictures of marine particles as they fall past the MINION and through the twilight zone into the deep ocean.
Read more about MINIONS Here: Chasing Ocean Snowflakes, Oceanus, March 7, 2019.
Why are we studying the Ocean Twilight Zone? Watch WHOI Researcher Heidi Sosik present at TED.
This project is funded under a unique model called the Audacious Project; a new model to inspire change.
This project involves many researchers at WHOI. More information about each can be found by scrolling down on the following webpage: https://twilightzone.whoi.edu/our-bold-ideas/